9 Important Components of Computer

Computer System is an electronic machine that is used to process raw data into meaningful information required by the users. It works on a set of instructions that are programmed into it in the form of software which helps them in processing the data and producing information as per the requirement. Let’s talk about the Components of Computer

Components of Computer

A computer system has three main components as given below:

  • Input Unit
  • Processing Unit or Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • Output Unit

The given below is a diagrammatic presentation of these components.

Input Unit

This unit controls those devices which are used to transfer inputs in a computer system such as Keyboard, Mouse, CD ROM, Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR), Barcode Reader, Smart Card Reader, and Touch Screen Feature.

Processing Unit or Central Processing Unit (CPU)

It is generally referred to as the brain of a computer system, which performs all the tasks related to the processing of data, storage, and retrieval of information. It is also known as Central Processing Unit. It is sub-divided into three parts:

  • Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU): It does all the mathematical (or arithmetical) calculations in a computer system. For example, multiplication, addition, subtraction, division, and logical operations.
  • Memory Unit: It helps in storing data that is not processed immediately.
  • Control Unit: It helps in the control and coordination of all the other units of a computer system.

Output Unit

The data when processed by a computer becomes information but to display this information to the users in a readable form certain devices are required which are known as output devices. This unit plays an important role in making information available to its users in an understandable form.

Other important Components of the Computer Hardware

We have different body parts performing various functions for us similarly a computer has a number of components that together form a system. These are as follows:

Motherboard: It is one of the most vital components of the computer system. Also known as the mainboard or logic board, it connects a whole gamut of computer devices like Central Processing Unit (CPU), RAM, etc. Hence, it has a whole lot of slots like slots for USBs (pen drive), RAM expansion slots, etc. Like the wiring in our brain, the motherboard has many circuits take to make a computer work and enables it to perform various functions.

Random Access Memory (RAM): It is the primary memory of a computer that stores information in binary language i.e. in zeros or ones. But is volatile in nature because it can be accessed only till the time the system is on. RAM is normally in the form of small chips in the motherboard which are used to trace the location of a particular data and access it within certain milliseconds. However, it can store only a limited amount of data at any point in time like MS Office application, etc. Due to its volatile nature, it can easily get erased when a device is rebooted.

Keyboard: We already know by now, that a computer has certain input devices that are used to feed instructions into a computer and certain output devices that show the results. The keyboard is one such input device that has all the 26 alphabets of the English language arranged in a way commonly referred to as the QWERTY keyboard. Hence, it is used to enter text or numbers into the system.

Sound card and Speakers: When you play a song on your computer, a voice magically appears. This is because every device has a sound card and a speaker which performs the function of converting the digital data stored in the form of music into analog data of sound waves.

Computer Screen: Also commonly called Monitor, this component helps us in interacting with the system by displaying the required content on the screen.

Printers: This device enables us to convert the soft copy of our data stored in the system into a hard copy or printed format.

Also, Read

Interest on Capital

Any interest paid on capital is considered as an expense and is shown in the Profit and Loss Account. Treatment of interest on capital in the final accounts is as follows.

Interest on Drawings

Treatment of interest on drawings in the final accounts is as follows. Firstly, interest in drawings is shown on the credit side of the Profit and Loss Account.

What is Operating Profit?

Operating Profit can be defined as the profit earned by carrying the normal business activities. It is computed by subtracting the operating expenses from the gross profit.

Balance Sheet

The balance sheet is the last financial statement that is prepared by any organization. This statement helps to ascertain the true financial position of an enterprise at the end of an accounting period

Profit and Loss Account

A profit and Loss Account is the second financial statement prepared by an organization. This account is prepared to ascertain the net results of a firm in form of net profit earned or net loss incurred during an accounting period.

What are Adjusting Entries?

In order to incorporate adjustments in the financial statements, we pass the required Journal entries, which are termed as adjusting entries.