Jahangir (1605-27)

Akbar was succeeded by Jahangir. Although he had inherited many qualities of Akbar, his military achievements were not as great as those of Akbar.

Jahangir

  • Salim, son of Akbar, came to the throne after Akbar’s death in 1605. He issued 12 ordinances.
  • He is known for his strict administration of justice. He established Zanjiri-Adal (i.e. Chain of Justice) at Agra Fort for the seekers of royal justice.
  • In 1611, Jahangir married Mihar-un-nisa, widow of Sher Afghan, a Persian nobleman of Bengal. Later on, she was given the title Nurjahan. Nurjahan exercised tremendous influence over state affairs. She was made the official Padshah Begum.
  • Nur Jahan was influential and powerful in the later years of his reign. Her relatives occupied dominant position in the court. She also struck coins in her name. All the royal farmans carried her name along with the imperial signature.
  • Jahangir issued coins jointly in Nurjahan’s name and his own. Jahangir also married Manmati/Jagat Gosai/JodhaBai of Marwar and a Kachhwaha princess.
  • Jahangir was famous for his ‘Chain of Justice’. He had installed a long golden chain on the walls of his palace and declared that any person who had been unjustly treated could pull the chain and seek justice from the king.
  • In 1608, Captain William Hawkins, a representative of East India Company came to Jahangir’s court. He was given the mansab of 400. In 1615 Sir Thomas Roe, an ambassador of King James I of England also came to his court. Though initially, Jahangir resisted, later on, he granted permission to the English to establish a trading port at Surat.
  • A political triumph during Jahangir’s reign was the submission of Rana Amar Singh of Mewar (1615). Jahangir captured the strong fort of Kangara (1620). A part of Ahmadnagar was also annexed. Malik Amberceded back to the Mughal territory of Balaghat (Maharashtra).
  • His reign was marked by several revolts. His son Khusrau, who received the patronage of 5th Sikh Guru Arjun Dev, revolted against Jahangir (1605). Arjun Dev was later sentenced to death for his blessing to the rebel prince (1606). During his last period, Khurram (Shan Jahan), son of Jahangir, and Mahavat Khan, the military general of Jahangir also revolted (Khurram: 1622-25 and Mahavat Khan: 1626-27).
  • He wrote his memoirs Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri in Persian.
  • He was buried in Lahore.

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