The Harappan Civilization is called so because the civilization was first unearthed at Harappa in the province of West Punjab in Pakistan. In 1862, Sir Alexander Cunningham noticed the traits of the cities. Civilization is regarded as an advanced stage of human cultural development. The period between 4000 BC and 3000 BC was a time when many civilizations were flourishing. The ancient civilizations began near the river banks as rivers provided water for drinking and irrigation. Following are the Metals used in Harappan Civilization
Metals used in Harappan Civilization
The discovery and use of metals enabled people to advance to a new stage in the progress of civilization. Copper was the first metal to be used by humans. The period when both stones and copper were used to make tools is known as the Chalcolithic Period.
Later, humans began to mix copper with tin or zinc and produced an alloy called bronze. Because bronze was harder, it began to be used for manufacturing agricultural tools and weapons.
As a result, four civilizations developed in the world. As bronze played an important role in the growth of these civilizations, they came to be known as Bronze Age civilizations. The Harappan civilization, Mesopotamian civilization, Chinese civilization, and Egyptian civilization were Bronze Age civilizations.
- In Harappan cities, many figurines of clay and terracotta such as bullock carts and ploughs have been found. Many beads, weights and blades have also been found.
- While copper and bronze were used to make tools, weapons and vessels, gold and silver were used to make ornaments.
- Glossy shining pottery was made by the potters in Harappa. Earthen vessels and pottery were decorated with black geometrical designs. These show the skilled craftsmanship of the people.
- The bronze statue of a dancing girl is another brilliant piece of art.
- Apart from these, several bronze figures of animals like buffalo and carts have been found.
- The metal statues were made through a special lost wax process. In this process, first figures in wax were created. They were then coated with clay. Later, the wax was removed after heating and the hollow mould was filled with molten metal which then took the shape of the object.
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