What are Municipal Wastes?

Wastes generated in a municipality or a local area are known as municipal wastes. It is discharged by shops, offices, banks, hospitals, and schools.

Categories of Municipal Wastes

Municipal Wastes can be categorized as:


It is a liquid waste that is discharged from kitchens, bathrooms, lavatories, laundries, and laboratories. It includes mineral and organic matter, wastewater, and human excreta. As municipal sewage contains large quantities of nitrogen and organic matter, it can affect the ecosystem if it is not treated.

Biodegradable Wastes

  • Biodegradable wastes decompose into the soil.
  • They do not pose a very serious challenge to the environment.
  • Examples: Paper, egg shells

Non-biodegradable Wastes

  • Non-biodegradable pollutants take a fairly long time (or never) to decompose into the soil.
  • These wastes pose a serious challenge to the environment because they do not decompose into the soil.
  • Examples: Metal cans, plastic products

Biodegradable wastes can be further classified into simple biodegradable wastes and complex biodegradable wastes. While biodegradable wastes can be easily broken down by natural processes (Examples: Leaves, vegetable peels), non-biodegradable wastes cannot be easily decomposed (Examples: Leather shoes, tin cans).


Waste Management-I

Waste refers to any discarded material which no longer remains useful. According to the Environment Protection Act, 1990, waste is any substance that constitutes a scrap material, or effluent, or an unwanted surplus that arises out of the application of any process. Read more

Waste Management-II

If wastes are allowed to accumulate and are not disposed of carefully, then they will not only affect our environment but will also affect our health. When accumulated wastes are left open and unattended, they begin to decompose. Read more

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