What is Rainwater Harvesting?

Rainwater harvesting is the method of collecting rainwater for use before it reaches the ground. Generally, rainwater is collected from the rooftop through pipes and stored in underground storage structures.


Mechanism of Rainwater Harvesting

  • Rainwater on the rooftop is first collected using a PVC pipe. Water is then filtered by using sand and bricks.
  • Water is taken down to either a sump (a hollow structure or a depression where liquids collect) for immediate use or is taken to a well or any other structure which is dug on the premises.
  • Water from this well can be used later for domestic consumption. It also recharges the water table.

Elements of Rainwater Harvesting

  • Catchment: Catchment is an area or a surface that receives direct rainwater.
  • Conduits: The pipelines or drains through which rainwater is carried from the catchment to the water harvesting system are known as conduits.
  • Storage Facility: Rainwater can be stored in storage containers of RCC and masonry or in plastic water tanks.
  • Recharge Facility: Rainwater harvesting also recharges the groundwater aquifers.

Recharging Groundwater Aquifers

Some commonly used water recharging methods are digging of

  • Bore wells
  • Recharge pits
  • Percolation pits
  • Recharge trenches

We need to conserve water as the population is growing at an extremely fast pace. Overexploitation of underground water has resulted in lowering the water table. Further, the demand for water for domestic and industrial use has also increased. Many water bodies such as rivers, lakes, and tanks have been polluted and hence cannot be used for basic purposes.


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