Wheat is the second most important crop in the country after rice. It is a rabi crop. India accounts for 12% of the total wheat production in the world. Climatic Conditions for Wheat cultivation, Methods, Solis, and distribution of Wheat are discussed below.
Climatic Conditions for Wheat Cultivation:
Wheat requires a cool climate. It requires a temperature of 10–15°C during sowing and 20–25°C during harvesting. About 80 cm of rainfall is ideal for wheat cultivation.
Soil: Well-drained loamy soil is suitable for the growth of wheat.
Methods of Wheat Cultivation:
Seeds are generally sown by the drilling and broadcasting methods. The wheat crop starts ripening in March and is harvested in April when the temperature is 27.5°C.
Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, and Madhya Pradesh are the five leading producers of wheat in the country. Wheat yield is extremely high in Punjab and Haryana. The yield of wheat is low in Madhya Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, and Jammu, and Kashmir as it is grown under rain-fed conditions.
Green Revolution is a term that is used to describe a manifold increase in farm production in India. Its main features are
- Use of large-scale capital and technological inputs
- Use of high-yielding seed varieties
- Use of chemical fertilizers and extensive irrigation facilities
- Adoption of modern scientific methods of farming
Impact of the Green Revolution
- Owing to large production, the Green Revolution changed Indian agriculture from subsistence farming to commercial and market-oriented farming.
- Creation of more employment opportunities.
- Farmers were benefited by increased productivity leading to rural prosperity.
- It made India self-sufficient in food grains.
- However, the Green Revolution was criticized by environmental scientists because of land degradation caused by overuse of fertilizers and decease in soil fertility due to over irrigation.
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