Equatorial Regions

Vegetation that grows in a natural region without any human interference is known as natural vegetation. A natural region is a basic geographic unit that is characterized by its common natural features of geography, geology, and climate. Climate is a basic factor upon which natural regions are divided. It influences flora, fauna, and vegetation in the region. Climate is classified on factors such as temperature, winds, pressure, humidity, rainfall, landforms, types of soil, natural vegetation, and wildlife. Based on these factors, the world is divided into various natural regions such as the equatorial region, tropical grasslands, tropical deserts, tropical monsoon type of climate, the Mediterranean region, China type of climate, temperate grasslands, temperate deserts, and taiga and tundra regions.


Equatorial Regions


Natural Vegetation and Animals in the Equatorial Regions

  • Equatorial regions have dense evergreen forests. Tropical forests in the Amazon forests are known as Selvas.
  • The forests are multilayered. The trees form the canopy which does not allow sunshine to reach the ground. The bottom layer of the forest floor has shrubs, ferns, and climbers.
  • Ebony, cinchona, rosewood, and rubber are some important species of trees.
  • As the forests are dense, wide varieties of animals are found in the region. Apes, monkeys, reptiles, elephants, lions, and rhinoceros are found in the region apart from varieties of birds, lizards, frogs, and snakes.

Climate of the Equatorial Regions

  • The climate is mainly characterised by heavy rainfall and high temperature. It rains almost every afternoon. The days and nights are of equal duration for most time of the year.
  • There is no winter or dry season. The climate remains hot and wet throughout the year.

Human Adaptation

  • While primitive people practice hunting and gathering, tribals practice shifting cultivation.
  • The main crops grown in the Amazon basin are tapioca, groundnuts, mangoes, bananas, and yam.
  • Many plantations have been established in the equatorial regions, especially in Indonesia, Malaysia, Central America, and West Africa. Cocoa, rubber, tea, and coffee are grown in these regions. Some other crops which are grown include coconuts, cinchona, sugarcane, spices, and pineapples.

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