## Co-ordinate Geometry

Co-ordinate Geometry is the branch of mathematics in which algebraic methods are used to solve geometrical problems. Two perpendicular number lines intersecting at point zero are called coordinate axes. The horizontal number line is the x-axis (denoted by X’OX) and the vertical one is the y-axis (denoted by Y’OY). The point of intersection of the …

## Area and Perimeter of Plane Figures

The perimeter of a plane figure is the length of its boundary. The unit of the perimeter is the same as the unit of length, i.e. cm, m, mm, etc. The area of a plane figure is the measure of the surface enclosed by its boundary. The unit of area is cm2, m2, mm2, etc …

## Area Theorems

The amount of surface enclosed by the boundary of a plane closed figure is called its area and is measured in squared units. A diagonal of a parallelogram divides it into two congruent triangles i.e. two triangles of equal area. Parallelograms between the same base and between the same parallels are equal in area. A …

## Pythagoras Theorem

Pythagoras theorem: In a right-angled triangle, the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares of the remaining two sides. Converse of Pythagoras theorem: If, in any triangle, the square of the longest side is equal to the sum of the squares of the remaining two sides, then the triangle is …

## Isosceles Triangle

An isosceles triangle is a triangle in which two sides have the same length. An equilateral triangle is a triangle in which all three sides are equal in length. All equilateral triangles are isosceles triangles and all isosceles triangles are not equilateral triangles. Isosceles Triangle PDF Download PDF

## Indices

Power is the product of a number by itself. It is represented by a base number and an exponent. An index is a number that indicates how many times another number, the base, is being used as a repeated factor. Indices PDF Download PDF

## Expansions

An equation that is true for all values of its variables is called an identity. Expansions PDF Download PDF