Fertilization ~ In Humans & Plants

Fertilization in Humans

Fertilization is the fusion of the male gamete (sperm) and the female gamete (ovum) to form a zygote.

  • During copulation, the sperms are released into the vagina near the cervix of the uterus.
  • These sperms actively pass through the passage of the cervix into the uterine cavity.
  • Of the millions of sperms released into the vagina, very few are able to reach the upper parts of the
  • Oviducts. The rest die on the way and are absorbed.


  • It is located in the head region of the sperm.
  • The enzyme present in the acrosome facilitates the entry of the sperm into the ovum by dissolving its wall.


The nucleus of sperms contains
genetic material (22 + X/22 + Y chromosomes).



The tail part helps the sperm in its forward movement while crossing the
passage of the cervix.

Fertilization in Plants

Fertilization is the fusion of the male gamete present in the pollen with the female gamete or the egg present in the ovule.

Events in Fertilization

  • The pollen grains germinate after falling on the stigma of the same plant species
  • The pollen tube grows out of the pollen grain.
  • The generative nucleus divides into two nuclei.
  • The pollen tube grows through the stigma and style and reaches the ovary.
  • It pushes through the micropyle and reaches the embryo sac.
  • The tube nucleus eventually disintegrates.
  • The pollen tube enters one of the synergids and releases two sperm nuclei.
  • One sperm nucleus enters the egg cell and fuses with its nucleus.
  • The other sperm nucleus moves towards the two polar nuclei and fuses with them.

Fate of Floral Parts After Fertilization:

Floral PartFate
SepalsUsually wither away, but
in some cases these
remain attached to the fruit.
Examples: Brinjal, tomato
PetalsWither away
StamensWither away
StyleWithers away
StigmaWithers away
Ovary wallPericarp
PlacentaStalk of the seed
Outer integumentTesta (seed coat)
Inner integumentTegmen (seed coat)
Secondary nucleusEndosperm
Egg cell and synergidsEmbryo
Antipodal cellsDisorganized

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