Five Kingdom Classification | ICSE Biology Notes
Five Kingdom Classification
Some Useful Terms
- A species is an organism of a particular kind whose members can interbreed among themselves ton produce fertile young ones.
- Species which are structurally similar or related constitute the next higher category called the genus.
- A group of genera with certain common characteristics form a family.
- A group of related families constitutes an order.
- Orders which share some common characteristics together constitute a class.
- A phylum is the largest division in the classification of plants and animals. The classes which share features constitute a phylum.
- Related phyla which share some common features form a kingdom.
- One of the earliest systems of classification, called the Two Kingdom Classification, was proposed by Carolus Linnaeus in 1758.
- According to the two kingdom classification, living organisms were classified into two broad kingdoms—plants and animals.
- Also Read The Respiratory System
Five Kingdom Classification
|Characteristics||1. Organisms have a prokaryotic cell|
2. Cell lacks a distinct nucleus.
|Characteristics||1. Contain a well-defined nucleus.|
2. Nuclear material organized in the form of a
linear, double-stranded and helical DNA along with proteins.
|Examples||Chlamydomonas, Euglena, Amoeba, Paramoecium, Pandorina|
|Characteristics||Possess a true nucleus and a definite cell wall, made of chitin.|
|Examples||Mucor, Rhizopus, Puccinia, Ustilago, Albugo, Penicillium, Aspergillus|
|Characteristics||1. Cell is bound by a cell wall which is made|
2. Contains a true nucleus and membrane-bound cell organelles.
|Examples||Algae, moss, fern, pine,|
|Characteristics||Lack cell wall and plastid.|
|Examples||Earthworm, Sycon, beetle, toad|
Classification of Kingdom Plantae
|Characteristics||1. Plants have an irregularly shaped,|
undifferentiated body called thallus.
2. Predominantly aquatic.
|Characteristics||1. Plant body is either in the form of an|
undifferentiated thallus or in the form of leafy erect structures.
2. No specialized tissue for the conduction of water and other substances from one part of the plant body to another.
|Examples||Riccia, Funaria, Anthoceros|
|Characteristics||1. Plant body is differentiated into stem, leaves and roots.|
2. Have specialised tissue for the conduction of
water and other substances from one part of the plant body to another.
|Characteristics||1. Bear naked seeds.|
2. Usually perennial, evergreen and woody.
|Examples||Gingko, Pinus, Gnetum|
|Characteristics||1. Plant body produces seeds which are enclosed within the fruits.|
2. Based on the number of cotyledons, angiosperms are divided into two classes—
monocots and dicots.
|Examples||Maize, bean, wheat|
Differences between Vertebrates and Invertebrates
|Internal skeleton||Have an internal skeleton.||No internal skeleton.|
|Backbone||Backbone present.||Backbone absent.|
|Tail||Tail usually present.||Tail absent (anus at the tip of|
the back end of the body).
|Heart||Heart on the ventral side of the body.||If present, heart on the dorsal|
side of the body
|Spinal cord||Nerve (spinal) cord dorsal and hollow.||Nerve cord ventral and solid.|
|Limbs||Have two pairs of limbs.||Have three or more pairs of|
limbs, if present.
|Haemoglobin||Haemoglobin in red blood cells.||Haemoglobin, if present, is|
|Examples||Fish, frog, lizard, bird||Leech, earthworm, Sycon|
Division of Phylum Invertebrate
|Characteristics||1. Simplest multicellular animals with perforated|
2. The body consists of a hollow tube.
|Examples||Sycon, bath sponge|
|Characteristics||1. Have a two-layered body wall, which encloses a single cavity in which digestion takes place.|
2. There are finger-like projections called tentacles present near the mouth for catching food.
|Examples||Hydra, jellyfish, sea anemone, corals|
|Characteristics||1. Small, soft, flattened, unsegmented worms.|
2. Do not have a body cavity or coelom.
|Examples||Liver fluke, tapeworm,|
|Characteristics||1. The body is cylindrical and divided into ring-like|
2. Have a true body cavity called coelom, present
between the body wall and the digestive tube,
which is filled with coelomic fluid.
|Examples||Earthworm, leech, Nereis|
|Characteristics||1. The body is long, cylindrical and unsegmented without a body cavity.|
2. The nervous system is well-developed and
consists of simple nerves.
|Characteristics||1. Have jointed limbs, one pair each on some or on|
all body segments.
2. Have an exoskeleton made of chitin.
3. Lack cilia.
|Examples||Crayfish, crab, millipede,|
centipede, insects, scorpion, spider
|Characteristics||Have a soft, unsegmented body without appendages, with a hard, calcareous shell to protect the soft body.|
|Examples||Snail, slug, oyster, mussel,|
clam, squid, octopus
|Characteristics||1. The body may be spherical, cylindrical or star-shaped, hard, unsegmented or non-metameric.|
2. Possess a spiny exoskeleton.
|Examples||Starfish, brittle star, sea urchin, sea cucumber|
Division of Phylum Vertebrata
|Characteristics||1. Organisms belonging to Class Pisces are fish.|
2. They are cold-blooded or poikilothermic animals.
|Examples||Cartilaginous fish: Shark, dogfish, skate Bony fish: Carp, roach, herring, trout|
|Characteristics||1. The body is divisible into head and trunk. Neck is absent.|
2. Have a three chambered heart with two auricles and one ventricle.
3. Cold-blooded vertebrate animals.
|Examples||Frog, toad, salamander, newt|
|Characteristics||1. The body is divisible into head, neck, abdomen|
2. Most of them have a three-chambered heart.
Ventricle of the heart is partially divided.
|Examples||Lizard, snake, tortoise, turtle, crocodile, alligator|
|Characteristics||1. All birds belong to Class Aves.|
2. Warm-blooded or homeothermic animals.
3. Heart is four chambered.
|Examples||Pigeon, sparrow, crow, duck, owl, penguin, ostrich, emu|
|Characteristics||1. Warm-blooded animals.|
2. Have a four-chambered heart with two auricles and two ventricles.
|Examples||Cat, dog, cow, sheep, rat, bat, seal, monkey, apes, man|
The binomial nomenclature system was suggested by the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus.
According to the binomial nomenclature, every organism is given a scientific name for individual identity. The scientific name includes two terms. The first term is the name of the genus and the second term is the name of the species.