Five Kingdom Classification

Five Kingdom Classification | ICSE Biology Notes

Five Kingdom Classification

Some Useful Terms

  • A species is an organism of a particular kind whose members can interbreed among themselves ton produce fertile young ones.
  • Species which are structurally similar or related constitute the next higher category called the genus.
  • A group of genera with certain common characteristics form a family.
  • A group of related families constitutes an order.
  • Orders which share some common characteristics together constitute a class.
  • A phylum is the largest division in the classification of plants and animals. The classes which share features constitute a phylum.
  • Related phyla which share some common features form a kingdom.
  • One of the earliest systems of classification, called the Two Kingdom Classification, was proposed by Carolus Linnaeus in 1758.
  • According to the two kingdom classification, living organisms were classified into two broad kingdoms—plants and animals.
  • Also Read The Respiratory System

Five Kingdom Classification

Characteristics1. Organisms have a prokaryotic cell
2. Cell lacks a distinct nucleus.
ExamplesBacteria, Cyanobacteria,
Characteristics1. Contain a well-defined nucleus.
2. Nuclear material organized in the form of a
linear, double-stranded and helical DNA along with proteins.
ExamplesChlamydomonas, Euglena, Amoeba, Paramoecium, Pandorina
CharacteristicsPossess a true nucleus and a definite cell wall, made of chitin.
ExamplesMucor, Rhizopus, Puccinia, Ustilago, Albugo, Penicillium, Aspergillus
Characteristics1. Cell is bound by a cell wall which is made
of cellulose.
2. Contains a true nucleus and membrane-bound cell organelles.
ExamplesAlgae, moss, fern, pine,
CharacteristicsLack cell wall and plastid.
ExamplesEarthworm, Sycon, beetle, toad

Classification of Kingdom Plantae

Characteristics1. Plants have an irregularly shaped,
undifferentiated body called thallus.
2. Predominantly aquatic.
ExamplesNostoc, Oscillatoria,
Characteristics1. Plant body is either in the form of an
undifferentiated thallus or in the form of leafy erect structures.
2. No specialized tissue for the conduction of water and other substances from one part of the plant body to another.
ExamplesRiccia, Funaria, Anthoceros
Characteristics1. Plant body is differentiated into stem, leaves and roots.
2. Have specialised tissue for the conduction of
water and other substances from one part of the plant body to another.
ExamplesPsilotum, Nephrolepis,
Characteristics1. Bear naked seeds.
2. Usually perennial, evergreen and woody.
ExamplesGingko, Pinus, Gnetum
Characteristics1. Plant body produces seeds which are enclosed within the fruits.
2. Based on the number of cotyledons, angiosperms are divided into two classes—
monocots and dicots.
ExamplesMaize, bean, wheat

Differences between Vertebrates and Invertebrates

Internal skeletonHave an internal skeleton.No internal skeleton.
BackboneBackbone present.Backbone absent.
TailTail usually present.Tail absent (anus at the tip of
the back end of the body).
HeartHeart on the ventral side of the body.If present, heart on the dorsal
side of the body
Spinal cordNerve (spinal) cord dorsal and hollow.Nerve cord ventral and solid.
LimbsHave two pairs of limbs.Have three or more pairs of
limbs, if present.
HaemoglobinHaemoglobin in red blood cells.Haemoglobin, if present, is
ExamplesFish, frog, lizard, birdLeech, earthworm, Sycon

Division of Phylum Invertebrate

Characteristics1. Simplest multicellular animals with perforated
2. The body consists of a hollow tube.
ExamplesSycon, bath sponge
Characteristics1. Have a two-layered body wall, which encloses a single cavity in which digestion takes place.
2. There are finger-like projections called tentacles present near the mouth for catching food.
ExamplesHydra, jellyfish, sea anemone, corals
Characteristics1. Small, soft, flattened, unsegmented worms.
2. Do not have a body cavity or coelom.
ExamplesLiver fluke, tapeworm,
Characteristics1. The body is cylindrical and divided into ring-like
2. Have a true body cavity called coelom, present
between the body wall and the digestive tube,
which is filled with coelomic fluid.
ExamplesEarthworm, leech, Nereis
Characteristics1. The body is long, cylindrical and unsegmented without a body cavity.
2. The nervous system is well-developed and
consists of simple nerves.
ExamplesHookworm, Ascaris
Characteristics1. Have jointed limbs, one pair each on some or on
all body segments.
2. Have an exoskeleton made of chitin.
3. Lack cilia.
ExamplesCrayfish, crab, millipede,
centipede, insects, scorpion, spider
CharacteristicsHave a soft, unsegmented body without appendages, with a hard, calcareous shell to protect the soft body.
ExamplesSnail, slug, oyster, mussel,
clam, squid, octopus
Characteristics1. The body may be spherical, cylindrical or star-shaped, hard, unsegmented or non-metameric.
2. Possess a spiny exoskeleton.
ExamplesStarfish, brittle star, sea urchin, sea cucumber

Division of Phylum Vertebrata

Characteristics1. Organisms belonging to Class Pisces are fish.
2. They are cold-blooded or poikilothermic animals.
ExamplesCartilaginous fish: Shark, dogfish, skate Bony fish: Carp, roach, herring, trout
Characteristics1. The body is divisible into head and trunk. Neck is absent.
2. Have a three chambered heart with two auricles and one ventricle.
3. Cold-blooded vertebrate animals.
ExamplesFrog, toad, salamander, newt
Characteristics1. The body is divisible into head, neck, abdomen
and tail.
2. Most of them have a three-chambered heart.
Ventricle of the heart is partially divided.
ExamplesLizard, snake, tortoise, turtle, crocodile, alligator
Characteristics1. All birds belong to Class Aves.
2. Warm-blooded or homeothermic animals.
3. Heart is four chambered.
ExamplesPigeon, sparrow, crow, duck, owl, penguin, ostrich, emu
Characteristics1. Warm-blooded animals.
2. Have a four-chambered heart with two auricles and two ventricles.
ExamplesCat, dog, cow, sheep, rat, bat, seal, monkey, apes, man

The binomial nomenclature system was suggested by the Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus.

According to the binomial nomenclature, every organism is given a scientific name for individual identity. The scientific name includes two terms. The first term is the name of the genus and the second term is the name of the species.

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