Fold Mountains

Fold mountains are some of the youngest mountains of the Earth. Most of the fold mountains are formed of sedimentary rocks. These sedimentary rocks were formed because of the deposition and collection of sediments in shallow oceans such as the Tethys (a hollow depression from where the Himalayas have emerged).

Formation of Fold Mountains

  • Fold mountains are caused by large-scale movements taking place inside the Earth’s crust. These movements are caused by various factors such as the movements in the mantle and the expansion and contraction of some parts of the Earth. These are horizontal movements.
  • Fold mountains are formed when two tectonic plates move towards each other leading to the folding of the layers of the Earth. The up folds are called anticlines and the down folds are called synclines.
  • Examples: the Himalayas in Asia, the Andes in South America, the Alps in Europe

Chief characteristics of fold mountains

  • They are some of the youngest mountains of Earth.
  • Most of them are formed of sedimentary rocks. These sedimentary rocks were formed because of the deposition and collection of sediments in shallow oceans such as the Tethys (a hollow depression from where the Himalayas have emerged).
  • They are greater in length but comparatively smaller in width.
  • They are associated with volcanic activities as they have many active volcanoes.
  • Many islands existing on the surface of the Earth such as the West Indies are the top surface of many fold mountains which exist under the seas.

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