The Constitution of India was framed by the Constituent Assembly.
Formation and Composition of the Constituent Assembly
- The Muslim League boycotted the Constituent Assembly because it was demanding the creation of a separate state of Pakistan.
- After the plan for the creation of Pakistan was drawn upon, the members of the Constituent Assembly were limited to 299 members.
- Dr Rajendra Prasad was elected as the permanent chairman of the Constituent Assembly of India.
- Members from various regional zones and from various fields were elected as the members of the Assembly.
- Anglo Indians were represented by Frank Anthony and S. H. Prater. Muslims were represented by Zafar Imam and Mohammad Saadullah. Sikhs were represented by Sardar Hukum Singh and Ujjal Singh.
The Objective Resolution proposed by Jawaharlal Nehru highlighted the basic objectives of the Constitution of India. These were
- Independent India will essentially be a republic.
- Social, political and economic democracy would be guaranteed to all the people.
- The Republic would grant fundamental rights to all its citizens.
- The rights of the minorities and backward classes would be safeguarded by the state.
- Eight committees were part of the Constituent Assembly. Dr B. R. Ambedkar was appointed as the Chairman of the Drafting Committee which was responsible for drafting the Constitution of India.
- The draft of the Constituent Assembly was discussed clause by clause in the first reading. The draft then underwent the second reading which was completed on 17 October 1949. It then went through the third and final reading which was completed on 26 November 1949.
- Two years, eleven months and 17 days were taken by the Constituent Assembly to prepare the Constitution of India.
- The Constitution of India came into force on 26 January 1950.
- After the Constitution came into force, C. Rajagopalachari became the Governor General of free India.
- The Constituent Assembly became the Provisional Parliament until the new general elections were held in 1951–52.
- Our Constitution came into force on 26 January because it was on this day that the call for ‘Poorna Swaraj’ or ‘complete independence’ was given by the leaders in 1929 at the Lahore Session of the Congress.
- Also Read Salient Features of the Constitution
The Constitution is a comprehensive document that contains the set of rules according to which a country is governed. It defines powers and regulations for all the three organs of the government—the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary. Read more
Constitution – Directive Principles of State Policy
Directive principles are guidelines to be followed by the government in the governance of the country. They are included in Part IV of the Constitution under Articles 36–51. These principles include ideas, deep human thought, belief, and knowledge. Read more