A landform is a natural feature formed on the surface of the Earth. Landforms are formed because of the following reasons:
How Landforms are Formed?
- The lithosphere is broken into several small and big plates which float on the partially molten asthenosphere. These plates may collide or push each other.
- Orogenic movements are responsible for the formation of the fold mountains.
- When the deposits of the sedimentary rocks lying between the two plates get compressed because of the movement of the tectonic plates, it results in folding of the rocks.
- Fold mountains such as the Himalayas and the Alps have been formed in this way.
Upliftment and Submergence
- When the vertical movements or the epeirogenic movements occurring inside the Earth along the radius from the Earth’s centre to the surface take place, it causes either the submergence or the upliftment of land.
- Such movements occur because of faulting. Block mountains, rift valleys and basins are formed as a result of faulting.
- Volcanic activities and earthquakes are described as sudden forces. Sudden forces are also known as ‘constructive forces’ as they form various relief features on the surface of the Earth.
- For example, volcanic mountains and plateaus are formed by volcanic activities and lakes may be formed as a result of earthquakes.
- Folding and faulting are caused by endogenic movements (movements taking place under the surface of the Earth). Exogenic movements occur on the surface of the Earth.
- Rivers, glaciers and winds are the exogenic forces resulting in the creation of landforms by erosion and depositional activities.
- Exogenic forces are also known as ‘destructive forces’ as they cause widespread destruction of landforms through weathering and erosion.
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