IFRS are designed to serve as a common global language of business affairs so that accounts of various companies are understandable and comparable across international boundaries. National accounting standards prevailing in different countries are being replaced by these International Financial Reporting Standards. International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) are a set of standards developed by the International Accounting Standard Board (IASB) stating how a particular transaction shall be treated or an event shall be reported in financial statements.
IFRS Based Financial Statements
- Statement of Financial Position (Balance Sheet)
- Statement of Comprehensive Income (Profit and Loss Account)
- Statement of Changes in Equity
- Statement of Cash Flows
- Notes and Significant Accounting Policies
Measurement of the Elements of IFRS Based Financial Statements
IFRS has evolved because the world coming closer and closer as a result of globalization. For comparison of the firms across the globe, it thus becomes essential for them to prepare their financial statements uniformly. Various elements like assets and liabilities, etc., contained in the IFRS based financial statements can be measured using the bases as mentioned below to different extents:
Historical Cost: This is in conformity with the Historical cost concept studied in the previous chapter. So, going with it we record all our assets at an amount we paid to acquire them and liabilities at the amount of money we received in lieu of the obligation. For example, Furniture is purchased for Rs. 8000 then this will be the amount so recorded.
Current Cost: As we are all well aware by now, that the prices of the goods that we own like television, laptops, etc., never stays the same. It is for this reason, that we sometimes carry our assets in the Balance Sheet at the price or amount we will currently pay for them. Also, the liabilities are carried at before discount value for the settlement of the obligation.
Settlement (Realisable) Value: Here, the computation is based on what we would get in return if the assets are sold and what we will pay for our liabilities in the future if calculated at present. Based on this, assets are carried at the present discounted value (i.e. the value of Rs. 1 earned today is much more than that earned in the future owing to uncertainties) of the net cash inflows that it would generate in the normal course of the business. Similarly, liabilities are carried at the present discounted value (i.e. what we pay tomorrow is much less than what we pay today.) of the future net cash outflows that we are expected to pay in the normal course of the business.
Accounting Standards are the statements of code of practice from the regulatory accounting bodies that are to be observed within the preparation and presentation of monetary statements.