An ocean basin is a depression in the surface of the Earth in which the ocean lies. Many trenches, ridges, canyons, and plateaus exist in the ocean basin as a result of the tectonic, volcanic, erosional, and depositional processes.
Chief features of the Ocean Basin
Chief features of the ocean basin are
Continental Shelf: It is the area of the sea bed that is adjacent to the coastline and is not as deep as the open ocean. The continental shelf is so shallow that even sunlight can reach the seabed. It is rich in oil, coal, and non-ferrous metals. One can find many types of plankton here. This makes the continental shelf the richest fishing ground.
Continental Slope: The slope between the outer edge of the continental shelf and the deep ocean floor is known as the ocean slope. It occupies 8.5% of the total ocean area. The continental slope consists of light continental rocks which lie over the dense rocks of the ocean floor.
Deep Ocean Floor: Ocean floors are situated on the base of the continental slope. The depth of the ocean floors varies from 3000 to 6000 metres. On the ocean basins, many plateaus, plains, and volcanic summits may be found. About two-thirds of the ocean surface is occupied by deep ocean floors.
The Ocean Deeps: Deep trenches are known as ocean deeps. Some ocean deeps are as deep as 36,000 feet. The deepest part of the ocean in the world is Mariana Trench which is about 11,033 metres deep. Its depth is more than the height of Mount Everest on the land. Another deep trench is the Tonga Trench with a depth which exceeds 10,000 metres.
The importance of oceanic resources has created disputes regarding the control of oceans by various nations. Many nations claim their rights over sea waters located near their land. Read more