In this article, We have written all Powers and Functions of the President of India.
Executive Powers of the President of India
The President is the head of the Indian Union. All executive orders are issued by the Prime Minister and his cabinet in the name of the President. All key appointments are made in the name of the President on the advice of the Prime Minister and his cabinet. The President appoints
- The Prime Minister (the leader of the majority party in the Lok Sabha) and his Council of Ministers on the advice of the Prime Minister.
- The Chief Justice and the judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts.
- The Governors of the states, Lt-Governors and the Chief Commissioners of the Union Territories.
- The Attorney General, the Comptroller and the Auditor General of India.
- The Chairman and the members of the Union Public Service Commission.
- President’s rule is imposed over states if there is a breakdown of the state machinery or if no party is capable of proving its majority on the floor of the House.
- Administration of the Union Territories and the border areas is the responsibility of the President.
Diplomatic Powers of the President of India
- The President appoints the Indian Ambassadors to the other countries.
- He receives ambassadors and diplomatic envoys from the other countries.
- All treaties and international agreements are concluded on the name of the President.
- The President represents the entire nation in international conferences.
Legislative Powers of the President of India
- The President addresses both Houses of the Parliament for the first session held after the General Elections to the Lok Sabha.
- He has the power to send messages to both Houses of the Parliament related to any parliamentary matter (e.g. bills).The President has the power to summon and prorogue the houses of the Parliament.
- He can dissolve the Lok Sabha on the recommendations of the Prime Minister.
- The President nominates 12 members to the Rajya Sabha from among persons who have made great contributions to science, literature, social sciences, arts and sports.
- No bill can become a law until and unless it is signed by the President. The President can send the bill back to the House if he disagrees with any clause of the bill. However, when the bill comes to him for the second time, he has to sign it.
- The Ordinance can be passed even if no House of the Parliament is in session.
- The Governor may reserve some bills passed by the state for taking an opinion of the President. The President can send the bill back to the State Assembly for reconsideration.
- A bill dealing with the altering of state’s boundaries and the formation of new states cannot be introduced without the recommendations of the President.
Financial Powers of the President of India
- Money bills can originate in the Lok Sabha only on the recommendations of the President.
- The Annual Budget is placed by the Finance Minister in the Parliament on behalf of the President.
- The Annual Financial Statement is also laid before the Parliament at the beginning of the financial year on behalf of the President.
- Withdrawals from the Contingency Fund can be made after the approval of the President.
Military Powers of the President of India
- The President is the supreme commander of the armed forces in India.
- He appoints the Chiefs of all the three wings of the Armed Forces on the recommendations of the Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers, the Parliament and the Military Secretary.
Judicial Powers of the President
- The President is not answerable before any Court of Law for the exercise of powers and duties in his office.
- No criminal offences can be registered against him during his tenure as a President.
- The President has the power to grant pardon, reprieve, respite or commute the sentence of any person convicted for an offence.
- The President can appoint the Prime Minister when there is a hung Parliament, i.e. where no single party gets a majority in the Lok Sabha.
- He can appoint the Prime Minister in case of his (Prime Minister) sudden death and the ruling party is unable to elect a leader.
- When the ruling party loses the majority in the Lok Sabha, the President may or may not dissolve the House on the recommendations of the Prime Minister. The former may ask the leader of the other party to prove their majority on the floor of the House.
- The President can dismiss ministers of the government if they lose the confidence of the House but refuse to resign.
Emergency Powers of The President
The President can declare an emergency in the following cases:
- National Emergency: If there is danger to the peace and security of the nation because of foreign aggression, civil war or insurgency.
- Breakdown of Constitutional Machinery: Emergency can be proclaimed in the state if the constitutional machinery of the state breaks down.
- Financial Emergency: If the financial stability or the credit of the country is threatened.
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The President is the head of the Indian Union and is the supreme commander of the defense forces of India. The President is elected indirectly by the members of the Electoral College. Read more