It is important to safely dispose of wastes. Disposal of Wastes can be safely done in the following Methods:
Safe Disposal of Wastes Method #1
This is a method in which wastes are segregated. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes are segregated into different bins. Biodegradable wastes are then converted to useful products like biogas.
Safe Disposal of Wastes Method #2
In open dumping, wastes are dumped in open spaces located far away from the limits of the city. This kind of waste disposal is not safe and has many limitations. The dumping of different types of wastes makes such dumping grounds the breeding ground of mosquitoes and flies. The burning of these wastes also pollutes the air. The situation can become worse during the rains. Rainwater may carry these wastes to nearby lakes, rivers, or ponds and pollute them.
Safe Disposal of Wastes Method #3
In sanitary landfills, the wastes are disposed of away from the city. The waste is first spread in layers and then is compacted tightly so that its volume is reduced. The waste is then covered by soil. The waste is then subjected to bacterial decomposition. Sanitary landfills are useful as the wastes are not attacked by rodents or insects. Sanitary landfills are planted with vegetation. It has to be taken care that the roots of plants which are grown should not penetrate more than 30 cm into the soil. Further, only those plants should be grown which have the ability to thrive on low nutrient soil. One precaution which needs to be taken care of is that landfills should not be located in areas that have high underground water levels as they may get polluted.
Safe Disposal of Wastes Method #4
In composting, household and municipal wastes are decomposed by the aerobic method. The wastes are decomposed by microorganisms. This is a useful method of waste decomposition as wastes are decomposed by microorganisms into humus which adds fertility to the soil. Advantages of composting are
- Enhances soil nutrition and soil water retention capacity
- Checks soil erosion
- Increases the soil fertility by adding humus
Safe Disposal of Wastes Method #5
In the process of incineration, municipal wastes are burned at a very high temperature. Many materials like metal do not get completely burnt. These may be then recycled. This method however also pollutes the air with fly ash and sulphur dioxide. It is also an expensive process as the installation of proper devices for controlling air pollution needs to be installed. This method is useful because
1. It kills pathogenic organisms and reduces the volume of wastes.
2. It is useful for disposing of petroleum and plastic wastes in chemical industries.
Management of Municipal Wastes
- Municipal authorities should collect solid wastes from each house.
- Horticultural and construction wastes should be collected separately and disposed of.
- Biomedical wastes and industrial wastes should not be mixed with municipal wastes.
- Municipal wastes should be carefully stored and segregated.
Also, Read Treatment of Effluents