The Judicial Review refers to the power of the Supreme Court to declare null and void those laws of the legislature and those orders of the executive which go against the provisions of the constitution. The power of Judicial review is an implied power under Art-13 is not explicitly mentioned in the constitution. The court can not initiate suo moto the proceedings of judicial review. It has to be brought before the court by the affected party.
The Original Jurisdiction extends to those cases which Supreme Court has the authority to hear and decide in the first instance. The Supreme Court in its Original Jurisdiction entertains suits in the following cases:
(i) A dispute between the Government of India and one or more States.
(ii) Disputes between two or more States.
(iii) A Dispute between the Union and any State on the one side and other States on the other.
Also, in cases involving the violation of Fundamental Rights, the Supreme Court enjoys Original Jurisdiction.
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Human rights refer to freedoms and rights which should be available to all human beings irrespective of their caste, class, gender, and religion. These rights include the right to life, the right to freedom of speech and expression, the right to equality, the right to education, etc. Read more