What is Orographic Rainfall?

Orographic rainfall is also known as relief rainfall. When the moisture-bearing winds strike a mountain range, it is forced to ascend.

Orographic Rainfall

  • Orographic rainfall is also known as Relief rainfall because it is affected by the relief or physical features of a place, i.e. mountains.
  • When the moisture-bearing winds strike a mountain range, it is forced to ascend.
  • Because the wind rises up the mountains, it cools down to its saturation point bringing rainfall on the windward side of the mountains. These winds are devoid of moisture when they reach the leeward side of mountains. Hence, places located on the leeward side of mountains get scanty rainfall.
  • For example, Mumbai which lies on the windward side of the Western Ghats receives heavy rainfall, while Pune which lies on the leeward side receives scanty rainfall.


8 Forms of Precipitation

Various forms of Precipitation are 1. Rain: It is the most common form of precipitation. The droplet of water that precipitates from clouds is known as rainfall.

What is Humidity?

Evaporation changes the water from the liquid form to the gaseous form. Water vapour which is present in the atmosphere is known as humidity.

4 Facts about the Exosphere

The exosphere is the uppermost layer of the Earth. Light gases such as helium and hydrogen float into space from this layer because of the lack of gravity.

Mesosphere Characteristics

The mesosphere is the third layer of the atmosphere and it lies above the stratosphere up to the height of 80 km. It is in this layer that the meteorites burn when they enter the atmosphere from space.

Thermosphere Characteristics

The thermosphere lies above the mesosphere. This layer extends to a height of about 640 km. In this layer temperature rises dramatically, reaching up to 1480°C.


The troposphere is the most important layer of the atmosphere. It extends up to 13 km from the surface of the Earth. The oxygen which we breathe exists in this layer of the Earth.

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