The Winter season in India begins during mid-November in northern India and stays till February. December and January are the coldest months.
Winter Season in India
The temperature decreases from the south to the north. The places in the North Indian Plains experience cold climates. Thus, while the mean temperature during January at Thiruvananthapuram is as high as 31°C, it is only 16°C in Varanasi.
The excessive cold in north India during the winter season is due to the following reasons:
- Cold winds blow from the Caspian Sea and Turkmenistan over the northwestern parts of India during February.
- Places such as Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan are far away from the moderating influence of the sea and hence experience the continental types of climate.
- The snowfall in the nearby Himalayan ranges creates a cold wave situation.
- There are high-pressure conditions over the northwestern parts of the country.
- The northeast trade winds blow from the land to the sea during this season, and hence, they are dry. They pick up moisture when they blow over the adjoining oceans and thus bring rainfall over the Coromandel Coast.
- Western disturbances are experienced in the northern parts of the country during the cold season.
Rainfall during Winter Season
Most parts of the country do not receive rainfall during the winter. Some areas which receive rainfall during the winters are
- Central and northern parts of the country get occasional rainfall during winter.
- Weak temperate cyclones cause rainfall in Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, and western Uttar Pradesh. This rainfall is beneficial for rabi crops.
- Northeastern parts of the country also receive winter rainfall.
- In October and November, the northeast monsoon picks up moisture while blowing over the Bay of Bengal and causes torrential rainfall over the coast of Tamil Nadu and the southern tip of Andhra Pradesh.
- During the winter, oceans tend to become warm and the land cools down. A high-pressure area develops over the land and a low-pressure area develops over the Indian Ocean.
- The winds move from a high-pressure area to a low-pressure area. Thus, the winds which blow from the land to the sea are dry and are devoid of any moisture. They bring cold weather and do not produce any rainfall.
- When these winds blow over adjoining oceans, they pick up moisture and bring rainfall over the southern Coromandel Coast (coastal Tamil Nadu) and over the southern tip of Andhra Pradesh.
- Because these winds blow from the northeastern parts of the country, they are also known as northeast monsoon winds.
Also, Read 4 Seasons in India