3 Archaeological Sources of Sangam Age

Several archaeological remains such as punch-marked coins, pottery, shells, beads, urns, megaliths, and inscriptions have been discovered which provide us with information about the period. The main Archaeological Sources of the Sangam Age are as follows

Archaeological Sources of Sangam Age #1


  • Megaliths are large pieces of stones found mostly at burial sites.
  • A renowned historian, Champalakshmi, has identified the Sangam Age coinciding with the last phase of megalithic culture in Tamil Nadu.
  • Large agricultural settlements with their chieftains belonging to the Sangam Age have also been identified with the megalithic communities.

Archaeological Sources of Sangam Age #2

Hero Stones

  • Hero stones were the memorial stones which were erected on the burial ground of the people who died for the common cause of their village, country and the king.
  • Many references to such hero stones have been made in Sangam literature.
  • Sometimes, hero stones were also erected along with inscriptions. These hero stones along with inscriptions are found either alone or in groups generally near an irrigation tank or lake outside the village.

Archaeological Sources of Sangam Age #3


  • Inscriptions form an important source of the Sangam Age. One cave inscription which was deciphered in 1966 dating back to 2nd century BC deals with a record of the gift of a monastery by a Pandyan king to a Jain monk.
  • Many references to the Chera Dynasty are found in Tamil Brahmi inscriptions dating back to the 3rd century AD.
  • Inscriptions written on poetry have also been found from about 20 archaeological sites in Tamil Nadu.


The Sangam Age

The Sangam Age refers to the period when most of the Tamil literature was composed by a body of Tamil scholars and poets in three successive literary gatherings called Sangam. Read more

The Mauryan Empire

The Mauryan Empire is regarded as the first and one of the greatest empires in India. It is called an empire because it annexed and brought several smaller states under its control. Read more

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