Biology Notes Class 10

Biology Notes Class 10 | ICSE Quality Study Materials

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Cells originate from a pre-existing cell. A mother cell divides to produce daughter cells. Hence, cells exhibit cell division. Read more

Structure of Chromosomes, Cell Cycle and Cell Division

Cell Division is the mean of asexual reproduction in unicellular organisms. It is essential for the growth of a single-celled zygote into a whole new multicellular organism. Read more


Genetics is the branch of science that deals with the principles of inheritance and its practices. Mendel proposed that heredity is controlled by genes. Read more

Absorption by roots

Osmosis is a special type of diffusion which involves the movement of water molecules from the region of high concentration to the region of low concentration through a semi-permeable membrane. Read more


Transpiration is the loss of water in the form of water vapour through stomata. It is a partially physical and vital process controlled by various internal and external factors. Read more


Photosynthesis is a physiological process by which plant cells containing chlorophyll produce food in the form of carbohydrates by using carbon dioxide, water and light energy. Oxygen is released as a by-product. Read more

Chemical Coordination in Plants

Plant hormones control some aspects of the growth of plants such as cell division, cell enlargement and cell differentiation. Read more

The Circulatory System

Blood is a never-stationary fluid and it is always in motion from the heart to the arteries and back through the veins. Read more

The Excretory System

The filtrate left after reabsorption and tubular secretion is called urine. The urine passes from the collecting duct to the pelvis of the kidneys. From there, it is sent to the urinary bladder through the ureters. Read more

The Nervous System

The human brain is well protected inside the cranium or the skull. In adults, it weighs about 1.35 kg. It is protected by three meninges—dura mater, arachnoid and pia mater. Read more

Endocrine System

Multicellular organisms communicate with and control their various activities by means of two major systems the endocrine system and the nervous system. Read more

The Reproductive System

The female reproductive system consists of the Ovaries, Oviducts, Uterus, Vagina, and Vulva. The male reproductive system consists of the Testes. Read more


Pollution is the addition of any substance in the environment which contributes to the deterioration or contamination of the environment, making it less favourable for organisms. Read more

Human Evolution

Evolution can be defined as the formation of more complex organisms from pre-existing simpler organisms over a certain period. It is a slow, but progressive, natural, sequential development. Read more

Aids to Health

Immunity can be defined as the ability of an organism to resist the attack of antigens or pathogens. Various harmful substances, such as pollutants and pathogens, may enter our bodies in different ways. Read more

Health Organizations

Governments strive to take steps individually, at the national level and globally to safeguard the health
interests of their citizens. Read more


The total world population about 50,000 years ago was approximately 1 million. About 10,000 years ago, the total world population reached approximately 5.3 million. Read more

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