Caste System in Later Vedic Period: In the Later Vedic Period, the caste system became rigid and society came to be divided into four main castes. Brahmans occupied the top position and performed all the rituals. Kshatriyas were a warring class who occupied the second class and protected their kingdom from any external attacks. Vaishyas were farmers, traders, and businessmen. Shudras occupied the lowest strata of society and were supposed to do all the menial work.
The Brahmins and Kshatriyas enjoyed powers and privileges denied to the Vaisyas and the By this time, besides the four major Varnas, many other caste groups had come into being like – the merchants, the chariot-makers, the smiths, the carpenters, the tanners, the fishermen, etc. Membership of a caste had become hereditary’ and there was also a fixation of occupation on the basis of one’s caste grouping. The so-called untouchables were forced to live in separate settlements outside the village or the town boundaries.
The Vedic Period
The age of history in which the Vedas were composed in the Indian subcontinent is known as the Vedic Age. The Vedas were composed by the Aryans. There are four Vedas—the Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, and Arthaveda. Read more
The Age of the Guptas
The Gupta Empire ruled the country from AD 320 to AD 540. It was not as large as the Mauryan Empire, but it politically united the North Indian territories for more than a hundred years. Read more
The Mughal Empire
The weakness of the Delhi Sultanate and political disunity thereafter led to the establishment of Mughal rule in India. The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur after he defeated Ibrahim Lodi in the First Battle of Panipat in 1526. Read more
The Medieval India – South india and Cholas
The Chera kingdom was one of the earliest kingdoms in South India. They were later defeated by the Pallavas in the 4th century AD. In the 10th century, the Cholas became a powerful kingdom in the South. Read more