# Mathematics Class 10

## Equation of a Line

The angle which a straight line makes with the positive direction of the x-axis measured in the anticlockwise direction is called the inclination (or angle of inclination) of the line. The inclination is usually denoted by θ. If θ is the inclination of a line l, then tan θ is called the slope or gradient […]

If p(x) is a quadratic polynomial, then p(x) = 0 is called a quadratic equation. The general form of a quadratic equation, in the variable x, is ax2 + bx + c = 0, where a, b, c are real numbers and a not equal to 0. The value of x that satisfies an equation

## Geometric Progression

A sequence is an arrangement of numbers in a definite order according to some rule. The various numbers occurring in a sequence are called its terms. We denote the terms of a sequence by a1, a2, a3…etc. Here, the subscripts denote the positions of the terms. In general, the number at the nth place is

## Statistics: Graphical Representation

A histogram is a graphical representation of a frequency distribution (in continuous form) in the form of rectangles with class intervals as bases and corresponding frequencies as heights, with no gap between any two successive rectangles. Frequency polygons are another way of displaying data using straight-line segments. The cumulative frequency is the accumulated or sum

## Measures of Central Tendency – Median and Mode

The median is the value of the middlemost observation(s). The median is to be calculated only after arranging the data in ascending order or descending order. The mode of statistical data is the value of that variate which has the maximum frequency. The mode for ungrouped data is the value that occurs most often. The

## Mensuration: Cylinder, Cone, and Sphere

Mensuration: Cylinder, Cone, and Sphere PDF Download PDF

## Circles: Tangents and Intersecting Chords

A line that intersects a circle at two distinct points is called a secant of the circle. A tangent to a circle is a line that intersects the circle only at one point. The common point of the circle and the tangent is called the point of contact. A tangent to a circle is a

## Matrices

A set of mn numbers arranged in the form of a rectangular array of m rows and n columns is called an m x n matrix. Each number or entity in a matrix is called its element. In a matrix, the horizontal lines are called rows, whereas the vertical lines are called columns. If a

## Coordinate Geometry – Reflection

The mutual perpendicular lines intersecting each other at their zeroes are called rectangular axes or coordinate axes. The horizontal axis is called the x-axis and the vertical axis is called the y-axis. (0,0) is called the origin. The position of a point in a plane is expressed by a pair of two numbers called coordinates.

## Shares and Dividends

A share is one of a finite number of portions in the capital of a company. The person who subscribes to shares is called a shareholder. The dividend is the profit that the company distributes to the shareholders at the end of the financial year. Nominal Value (N.V.) or face value (F.V.) is the original

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