The entire country is divided into several representative areas called constituencies. A Constituency is a fixed area with a body of voters or residents with voting rights. There are separate constituencies for the assembly elections and parliamentary elections.
Demarcation of Constituencies
- After every census which is held at a regular interval of ten years, the Parliament enacts a Delimitation Act.
- The Delimitation Commission is then set up by the central government.
- This Delimitation Committee then demarcates the boundaries of the parliamentary constituency according to the terms of the Delimitation Act.
- Lok Sabha constituencies are created according to the size of its population. However, some union territories and smaller states which have a small population are not governed by the rules of seat allocation applicable to other states. This has been done to provide adequate representation to them irrespective of their small population.
- Also Read Why do we Need Elections?
Types of Constituencies
Single-Member Constituency: When a constituency is entitled to only one member, it is known as a single-member constituency. It is a simple and convenient method in which only one member from each constituency is elected. Examples: India, England
Multi-Member Constituency: When more than one member is elected from one constituency, it is known as a multi-member constituency. In this system, several groups become the part of legislature which may hamper the work of the government. Examples: Germany, Italy, France
Reserved Constituencies: Many constituencies are reserved for the members of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
Election of the President and Vice President of India
The President and Vice President of India are elected indirectly. The President is elected indirectly by the members of the Electoral College which consists of the elected members of the Parliament and the state legislative assemblies including Delhi and the Union Territory of Puducherry. The Vice President is elected by the members of both houses of Parliament. State legislatures do not participate in the elections of the Vice President.
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