There are two kinds of elections—Direct elections and Indirect elections.
People of India cast their votes to directly elect their representatives to the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies. The elections in India are held on the party lines where the leader of the majority party in a state becomes the Chief Minister and the leader of the majority party in a country becomes the Prime Minister.
In India, the members of the Rajya Sabha and the Legislative Council are elected indirectly. The elected representatives of the people elect the members of the Rajya Sabha and the Legislative Council. The Rajya Sabha consists of not more than 250 members. Of these, 238 members are elected by the elected members of the state legislative assembly of each state. The remaining 12 members are nominated by the President for having special knowledge in literature, science, art, social service, and sports.
Election of the President and Vice President of India
The President and Vice President of India are elected indirectly. The President is elected indirectly by the members of the Electoral College which consists of the elected members of the Parliament and the state legislative assemblies including Delhi and the Union Territory of Puducherry. The Vice President is elected by the members of both houses of Parliament. State legislatures do not participate in the elections of the Vice President.
Types of Elections
There are three types of elections—General elections, By-elections, and Mid-term elections.
General Elections: General elections are held after every five years.
Mid-Term Elections: When the Lok Sabha or the state legislative assembly is dissolved before the completion of its full term of five years, mid-term elections are held.
By-Elections: When the seat held by a member in the Lok Sabha and the state legislative assembly falls vacant on the account of death or resignation of the member, by-elections are held to fill up vacancies.
Also, Read – Why do we Need Elections?