In 1921, Dayaram Sahni discovered Harappa and R. D. Banerjee discovered Mohenjodaro. The Harappan Civilization covered the parts of Punjab, Haryana, Sindh, Baluchistan, Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Western Uttar Pradesh. After Partition, Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro, Chanudaro, and Sutkagendor have become parts of Pakistan. Manda, Banawali, Kalibangan, Alamgiri, Lothal, Rupara and Rangpur are in India. The Harappan Civilization seemed to have declined during 1800 BC. Major Causes believed to decline the Harappan Civilization are
Causes of the Decline of the Harappan Civilization
Climatic Changes and Floods
It is believed that the amount of rainfall increased around 3000 BC and later declined. This may have affected agriculture and animal breeding. Many scholars contend that the decrease in the fertility of soil because of increased salinity led to the desertification of the area. Changes in the course of rivers may have led to disastrous floods and the decline in civilization.
The people in the Indus Valley civilization used wood in large quantities to produce bronze and to make pottery, boats, furniture, and jewelry. This may have led to deforestation resulting in various climatic changes in the region.
It is believed by several historians that earthquakes resulted in changes in the course of the River Indus which must have led to the inundation of the interior areas of Mohenjo-Daro.
Attack of the Aryans
Historians like Mortimer Wheeler believed that the Aryans coming from Central Asia invaded and destroyed the Indus settlements. The discovery of skeletons of several men, women, and children indicates that the Harappans probably met some violent death. In the last phase of Mohenjo-Daro, skeletons of men, women, and children have been found lying in a street. Skeletons of 13 males, females, and one child have been discovered from one of the rooms. This indicates that the civilization declined as a result of the attacks of the invading Aryans.
Also, Read The Harappan Civilisaion