Subhash Chandra Bose was born on 23 January 1897 in a Bengali family. After completing his early education, he joined Presidency College, Kolkata. He then went to England for higher studies. He passed the Civil Services Examination in 1920. He soon resigned from the Civil Services as he wanted to participate in the Indian National Movement.
Gandhi was born in 1869 at Porbandar in the Kathiawar district of Gujarat. He went to England in 1888 to study Law. From 1893 to 1914, he practiced law in South Africa. He witnessed racial discrimination in South Africa and soon became the leader of a struggle against racist authorities in the country.
Subhash Chandra Bose was an assertive nationalist who believed in taking aggressive steps to gain independence. He entered politics at the age of twenty-four. Although he was not a great supporter of the Gandhian ideology, he actively participated in the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Gandhi formed the Natal Indian Congress to fight against the racist policies of the South African government. It was here that the unique technique of Satyagraha evolved. Gandhi’s Satyagraha was based on truth and nonviolence. Mahatma Gandhi returned to India in January 1915 and made an extensive tour of the country in the next three years. In 1917 and 1918, he was involved in three significant struggles—in Champaran (Bihar), in Ahmedabad, and Kheda in Gujarat.
Ideological differences of Subhash Chandra Bose and Gandhi
Subhash Chandra Bose was elected as the President of the Indian National Congress (INC) in 1938. He sought re-election to the Presidentship of the party in 1939.
Gandhi was supporting Pattabhi Sitaramayya for the presidentship. However, because of the support given by radical elements within the party, Bose was re-elected as the President of the INC.
His ideological differences with Gandhi continued and he resigned from the Presidentship of the party in April 1939.
Reasons for the ideological differences of Subhash Chandra Bose with Gandhi
- Subhash Chandra Bose was an ardent believer of socialism and radical ideas. Gandhi, on the other hand, believed in the policy of Satyagraha which included fighting for freedom in a peaceful and non-violent manner.
- Bose believed that freedom could not be gained until and unless India takes the help of a foreign country. He looked upon the war between Britain and Germany as an opportunity that could enable India to achieve its independence. These revolutionary ideas were opposed vehemently by Gandhi and Nehru.
It was due to these reasons that he left the Congress and formed a new party, ‘the Forward Bloc’ in May 1939.
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