Geography Notes Class 10

ICSE Geography Notes Class 10 | ICSE Quality Study Materials

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Soils in India

Soil is a renewable natural resource. It supports various living organisms and is a medium for plant growth. Topsoil is the uppermost layer of the Earth. It consists of hummus. Factors such as variation in temperature, parent rock, decomposers and running water affect the formation of soil. Read more

Climate of India

India has a tropical monsoon type of climate. This is because India lies in the tropical belt and its climate is influenced by the monsoon winds. Hot summers and dry winters are characteristic of the monsoon type of climate. Read more

Minerals in India

Minerals are naturally occurring, homogeneous substances with definite chemical composition. Based on chemical and physical properties, minerals can be divided into metallic and non-metallic minerals. Read more


The economy of any nation depends on its infrastructure. One of the main components of infrastructure is the transport system. The transport system plays an important role in the Indian economy. Read more

Natural Vegetation of India

Natural vegetation is vegetation which grows in the region all by itself without the interference of human activity. There is a thin line of difference between flora and forests. Read more

Water Resources

India is a land of many rivers, lakes, lagoons and ponds. These resources account for 4% of the world’s water resources. In India, water is mainly used for drinking, irrigation, household and industrial purposes. Read more

Industries in India

The opening of the Tata Iron and Steel Company in Jamshedpur in 1907 was an important event in the history of industrialization in India. At present, India is the fifth largest producer of crude steel in the world. Read more

Manufacturing Industries in India-Agro Based

India is one of the top ten industrialized countries in the world. With her command over vast natural resources and huge manpower resources, she is developing at a rapid pace. Read more

Agriculture in India-Food Crops

Rice is the most important staple food crop of India. It is a Kharif crop which is grown extensively in the northern plains, northeastern parts of the country, and coastal and deltaic regions. Read more

Agriculture in India–Cash Crops

Cash crops are agricultural crops which are grown primarily for direct sale in the markets. The main cash crops are categorized as Beverages: Tea and coffee Fibres: Cotton and jute Oilseeds: Groundnut and mustard seeds Others: Sugarcane, tobacco and rubber. Read more

Conventional Sources of Energy

Coal is an important mineral in India. It occurs as a sedimentary rock in association with carbonaceous shale, sandstone and fine clay. Coal was formed by the decomposition of large land plants and trees buried under the Earth about 300 million years ago. Read more

Waste Management-I

Waste refers to any discarded material which no longer remains useful. According to the Environment Protection Act, 1990, waste is any substance which constitutes a scrap material, effluent or an unwanted surplus which arises out of the application of any process. Read more

Waste Management-II

If wastes are allowed to accumulate and are not disposed of carefully, then they will not only affect our environment but will also affect our health. When accumulated wastes are left open and unattended, they begin to decompose. Read more

Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

Non-conventional sources of energy are also known as renewable or alternative sources of energy. These resources have been developed in the recent past as an alternative to conventional or non-renewable sources of energy. Some examples are wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, tidal energy and biogas. Non-conventional resources are known as the energy resources of the future. Read more

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