Geography Notes Class 9

ICSE Geography Notes Class 9 || ICSE Quality Study Materials

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Motions of the earth -Rotation and Revolution

The spinning of the Earth on its axis is known as rotation, The revolution of the Earth around the Sun in an elliptical orbit is revolution. Read more

The Earth’s Grid

The framework formed by the intersection of the latitudes and longitudes on the Earth is known as a geographic grid. It helps us to locate exact places on the globe. Read more

Landforms of the Earth

The surface of the earth is not the same everywhere. The earth has an infinite variety of landforms. Some parts of the lithosphere may be rugged and some flat. Read more


A volcano is a vent or an opening in the Earth’s crust from which hot magma erupts from the interior of the Earth. Volcanoes are generally caused because of the following reasons. Read more


Weathering is the gradual wearing and tearing of rocks on the surface of the Earth. The main agents of weathering are temperature, humidity, and precipitation. Read more

The Atmosphere

The blanket of air that surrounds the Earth is known as the atmosphere. It exists in several layers. The atmosphere is made of many gases and solid particles. Read more

Precipitation -Types and Causes

The water cycle includes the process of evaporation, condensation, and precipitation. The heat of the Sun evaporates the water resulting in the formation of water vapour. Read more

Our World

A large cluster or collection of stars held together by gravitational force along with gases and dust is known as a galaxy. Milky Way is the name of our galaxy. Read more


Earthquakes are not associated with the weather but instead are natural disasters. An earthquake is a tremor below the surface of the Earth which causes shaking of the Earth’s crust. Read more


Rocks play an important role in the formation of soil. Soil is formed because of weathering and decomposition of rocks. Rocks also contain many minerals. Read more

Folding and Faulting

Orogenic Processes include mountain building through severe folding and faulting. In folding, because the compressional forces act from two opposite sides towards the centre. Read more

Movements of Ocean Waters

The rise and fall of seawater because of the gravitational forces of the Sun and the Moon are called tides. Sea waves produced by tides are known as tidal waves. Read more

Importance of Oceans

The importance of oceanic resources has created disputes regarding the control of oceans by various nations. Many nations claim their rights over sea waters located near their land. Read more

Isolation and heat balance

The Sun is the source of light and heat on the Earth. The heat and energy radiated by the Sun in all directions is known as solar radiation. Read More

Pressure belts and types of winds

The distribution of atmospheric pressure across the latitudes is known as the global horizontal distribution of pressure. Read more

Sources of Pollution

Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen monoxide, and unburnt hydrocarbons are some major sources of pollution. Metropolitan cities in India such as Delhi, Kolkata, and Mumbai suffer from acute air pollution. Read more

Types of Pollution

Excessive concentration of foreign particles or substances into the air which adversely affects the atmosphere is known as air pollution. Read more

Effects of Pollution

The presence of one or more harmful gases in the atmosphere is known as air pollution. Apart from these, solid particles like dust also pollute the air. Read more

Abatement of Pollution

Air pollution not only contains gaseous matter but also solid particles. Many devices and equipment have been designed to prevent air pollution. While choosing a device. Read more

Natural Regions of the World

Vegetation that grows in a natural region without any human interference is known as natural vegetation. A natural region is a basic geographic unit that is characterized by its common natural features of geography, geology, and climate. Read more

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