Groundnut Cultivation in India

Groundnut contains about 42% of oil which is extracted from nuts found in the roots of plants. It is mainly used for the manufacturing of hydrogenated oil. It is used for making margarine, medical emulsions, and soaps. While the oil of groundnut is used for cooking, its oil cake is used as cattle feed. The nuts are also eaten raw, roasted, salted, and sweetened. Climatic Conditions for Groundnut Cultivation, Soil needed, Methods and Distribution are discussed below


Climatic Conditions For Groundnut Cultivation

  • Groundnut grows well in a tropical and sub-tropical climate and can be damaged because of frost. While it is a rabi crop in Odisha and southern states, it is a Kharif crop in the rest of India.
  • It requires a temperature of 20°C to 25°C.
  • The groundnut crop requires light to moderate rainfall of 50–100 cm which should be well distributed throughout the year.
  • Continuous rains, stagnant water, and frost harm the crop adversely.

Soil Needed for Groundnut Cultivation

Sandy loams and well-drained soils are considered suitable for groundnut cultivation.


Methods of Groundnut Cultivation

Sowing: After ploughing, seeds are sowed by broadcasting and drilling methods. It is a flowering plant, and the crop takes about 4–5 months for harvesting.

Harvesting: During harvesting, the entire plant is removed from the soil. Groundnuts are packed in sacks after drying. They are sent to mills or commercial establishments.


Distribution

India is the second-largest producer of groundnut after China. It is mainly grown in Peninsular India. Gujarat is the leading producer of groundnut in India. Other groundnut-producing states are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Punjab.


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