Jute is one of the most important fibres grown in India. White jute grows on lowlands and uplands. The tossa jute is grown only on uplands as it can be damaged by floods. Jute is used for manufacturing sacks and other packaging materials. Jute is also used for manufacturing many utility products such as carpets, rugs, twine, and tarpaulins. Mesta is an inferior substitute for jute. Climatic Conditions for Jute Cultivation, Soil needed, Methods of Cultivation and, Distribution is discussed below.
Climatic Conditions for Jute Cultivation
- The jute crop requires hot and humid climate with temperatures ranging between 24°C and 35°C.
- The crop requires an annual rainfall of more than 150 cm.
- Uninterrupted rains and prolonged droughts are harmful for the crop.
Soil Needed for Jute Cultivation
New alluvial soil is considered suitable for the growth of the jute crop.
Methods of Jute Cultivation
Sowing: Seeds are sowed by broadcasting and drilling methods. They are sown in February on lowlands and in March and June on uplands.
Harvesting: The crop is harvested from July to September. The plants are cut after they attain the height of 2–4 m, and then they are put into a pond for retting. After peeling the bark, the fibre is rinsed, washed, dried, and pressed into bales.
Processing: Jute is put into specialized tanks for retting. After obtaining fibres, they are dried, spun, and woven into sacks and carpets.
West Bengal is the leading producer of jute in the country. In Bengal, jute is grown in Nadia, Parganas, Jalpaiguri, Malda and Burdwan. It is also grown in Assam, Bihar, Odisha, and Uttar Pradesh.
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