By 1918, Germany and her allies began to be routed by the combined forces of Britain, France and USA. This gave rise to political discontent in Austria and Hungary. While Bulgaria withdrew from the war, Turkey surrendered to the Allies in 1918. While the emperor of Austria–Hungary surrendered on 3 November 1918. A revolution broke out in Germany and he became a republic. The German emperor Kaiser William II fled to Holland. The new German government signed an armistice on 11 November 1918 and the war came to an end. About 53 to 70 million people fought in the war and about nine million people were either wounded or killed during the war. Besides, civilians were also killed because of air raids, epidemics and famines during the war. The economy of the countries participating in the war was shattered. The Great Economic Depression of 1929–30 is mainly attributed to the war. In this article, We have written Main Results of the First World War.
Results of the First World War
Main results of the First World War:
The Signing of the Treaty of Versailles (28 June 1919)
The treaty of Versailles was signed at Versailles in France. It was signed by the victorious nations. Main terms of the Treaty were
- Germany was held guilty of aggression.
- He was also required to pay huge war reparations of 33 billion dollars for the losses of the victorious nations.
- The Rhine Valley in Germany was to be demilitarized, and German territory to the west of Rhine was to be occupied by the Allied troops for 15 years.
- Germany lost Alsace-Lorraine to France and Schleswig to Denmark.
- Coal mines in Saar, Germany, were given to France for 15 years.
- Germany lost all her colonies to the victorious nations. Signing of the historic Treaty of Versailles.
- The size of the German army and navy was restricted, and its air force and submarines were banned.
- The war marked the end of three ruling dynasties in Europe—the Romanov in Russia, the Hohenzollern in Germany and Hapsburg in Austria–Hungary.
- The rule of the Ottoman Empire came to an end in Italy. Austria and Hungary became two separate states. Thus, monarchy in many countries collapsed.
- Many independent states emerged during the war. Some of these were Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Yugoslavia.
Formation of the League of Nations
The League of Nations was created after the end of the War. The fourteen-point programme of President Wilson included the creation of a world organization to prevent any future wars.
Aims and objectives of the League
- All nations were prohibited from entering any secret treaties and alliances.
- All nations had to respect each other’s independence.
- Nations should solve disputes among each other by referring the disputes to the League.
- Member nations had to take steps against the aggressive country which tried to disturb world peace.
The League was supposed to promote cultural, social and economic cooperation among the member nations. The League however had some limitations too. Germany and the Soviet Union were not made the members of the League. USA also did not join the League.
The rise of dictatorship in Germany and Italy weakened the League, which ultimately came to an end with the beginning of the Second World War.
Also, Read 8 Most Important Events of First World War