The process used for the extraction of metals in their pure form from their ores is called metallurgy.

The naturally occurring compounds of metals which are generally mixed with other matter such as soil, sand, limestone, and rocks are known as minerals.

Earthy impurities, including silica and mud, associated with the ore are called gangue.

Those minerals from which metals are extracted commercially at a comparatively low cost and with minimum effort are called ores.

Flux is a substance that is added to the charge in a furnace to remove the gangue.

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