The process of watering agricultural plants through artificial means such as tanks, wells, and canals is known as irrigation. Watering agricultural plants through artificial means such as tanks, wells, and canals is the conventional means of irrigation. In this article, we have written about the Modern Methods of Irrigation.
To reduce the dependence of agriculture on rainfall, many tanks, wells, and canals have been laid. Several multipurpose dams have also been constructed. Emphasis has been laid on building artificial means of irrigation.
Major Drawbacks of Conventional Methods of Irrigation
- In the agricultural fields, about 10–15% of land is used for preparing water channels, decreasing the effective area of cultivation.
- In tanks and canals, owing to the evaporation of water, the soil may silt.
- The fields in the low-lying areas always get excess water resulting in waterlogging and subsequently the accumulation of salt which damages the quality of soil.
- In the conventional system of irrigation, a large quantity of water is not properly used and gets wasted.
Modern Methods of Irrigation
It is a type of surface irrigation in which furrows or trenches are dug between rows of crops in the field instead of distributing water throughout the fields. It is useful in areas where water is easily available.
In spray irrigation, water is released in an agricultural field by spray guns. In spray irrigation, water is used efficiently in irrigating the fields. One limitation of this method is that it is expensive as it requires complex and sophisticated machinery. Further, plants may suffer from many diseases because of overwatering of fields.
In this system of irrigation, water is given directly to the crops through perforated pipes which are placed between rows of crops. This method reduces the rate of evaporation and helps in conserving water. This is the most advanced and efficient means of irrigation.
We need to conserve water as the population is growing at an extremely fast pace. Overexploitation of underground water has resulted in lowering the water table. Further, the demand for water for domestic and industrial use has also increased. Many water bodies such as rivers, lakes, and tanks have been polluted and hence cannot be used for basic purposes.
YOU MAY READ
India is a land of many rivers, lakes, lagoons, and ponds. These resources account for 4% of the world’s water resources. In India, water is mainly used for drinking, irrigation, household, and industrial purposes. Read more