Primary Sources of Energy are natural sources of energy that need not be transformed into any other form before using them as inputs in the production process.
Primary Sources of Energy
Primary sources of energy can be further classified as renewable and non-renewable sources of energy.
Primary Sources of Energy #1
Renewable sources of energy
These are sources of energy that can get renewed or replenished quickly. Renewable sources of energy are environmentally friendly. The important renewable resources include wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, tidal energy, and biogas.
Solar energy: This is the energy derived from the sun. The use of solar energy is slowly gaining popularity in India. Solar energy products such as solar lamps and solar water heaters are now being increasingly used. It is an environmentally friendly and clean source of energy.
Wind energy: This is the energy derived from moving air or wind. Rural wind energy farms have been making use of this energy for many years. In recent years, wind energy has gained immense popularity worldwide. Efforts are being made to make wind power generators more efficient and practical.
Bioenergy: This is the energy derived from living organisms and organic matter. It comprises biogas and biomass energy. Biogas is obtained from gobar gas produced from cow dung. Biogas is an important source of energy and is used as cooking fuel. Biomass is obtained from plants. An advantage of using biomass is that it encourages afforestation.
Geothermal energy: In the word “geothermal”, geo means “earth” and thermal means “heat”. So, this is the energy derived from the heat present inside the earth.
Tidal energy: This is the energy derived from tides (i.e. the periodic rise and fall of the sea level under the gravitational pull of the moon).
Primary Sources of Energy #2
Non-renewable sources of energy
These are sources of energy that cannot get renewed or replenished quickly. Their replenishment can take millions of years. Non-renewable sources of energy can adversely affect the environment. Nonrenewable resources such as natural gas, oil, coal, or nuclear are finite but still hold the majority of the Energy market.
Coal: It is the most important conventional source of energy in India. It contributes to over 65% of the total energy production in the country. Coal India Limited and Singrani Coal Company are the two main coal producers in India. Coal is used by thermal power stations, steel plants, railways, fertilizer factories, cement factories, etc. Although coal production in India takes place at a large scale, the produced coal is of such quality that it generates very little heat and leaves a lot of ash.
Petroleum: It is a basic input in the transportation and manufacturing sectors. India is not rich in oil and petroleum reserves. A large portion of the demand for petroleum is fulfilled by imports from other countries, particularly the Gulf States.
Natural gas: In India, natural gas reserves are found in Mumbai, Gujarat, Tripura, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Rajasthan. It is a basic input in the fertilizer and petroleum-products industries. Besides, it is also widely used in households as cooking gas in the form of LPG. Nowadays, natural gas in the form of CNG and LPG is also being used as fuels for vehicles.
Electricity: It is the most useful source of energy in India. The three basic sources of generating electricity or power are thermal energy, hydroelectric energy, and nuclear energy.
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