Poverty is the inability to secure the minimum human needs of food, clothing, housing, education, and health. When a person is unable to fulfil these basic needs, it leads to pain and distress.
Steps Taken to Reduce Poverty in India
Three Dimensions of the Government’s Approach to Reduce Poverty in India
- The growth-oriented approach is based on the expectation that the effects of economic growth would rapidly increase the gross domestic product and the per capita income. This would reach all sections of society and work for the betterment of poor sections.
- In the Third Five-Year Plan, the second approach was initiated with a notable programme of food for work.
- The third approach is to provide minimum basic amenities to the people. Through this approach, programmes have supplemented consumption for the poor, generated employment opportunities and improved health and education.
Anti-Poverty Measures in India
The anti-poverty strategy of the government is based on the promotion of economic growth and targeted anti-poverty programs.
- National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), September 2005
- 100 days assured employment every year to every household in 200 districts; will be extended to 600 districts later.
- One-third of jobs are reserved for women.
- The Central Government will establish National Employment Guarantee Funds.
- National Food for Work Programme (NFWP), 2004
- Launched in 150 most backward districts.
- Open to all rural poor who are in need of wage employment and manual skilled labour.
- 100% centrally sponsored scheme and food grains free of cost. Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY), 2000
- Additional central assistance to states for basic services.
- Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY), 1999
- To assist poor families above the poverty line by organising them into self-help groups through a mix of bank credit and government subsidies.
- Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP), 1995
- To create self-employment opportunities in rural areas and small towns.
- To create 25 lakh jobs for the programme under the Tenth Five-Year Plan.
- Prime Minister Rozgar Yojana (PMRY), 1993
- To create self-employment opportunities for educated unemployed youth in rural areas and small towns.
- To help set up small businesses and industries.
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