After the Mountbatten Plan was accepted, the Indian Independence Act 1947 was passed by the House of Commons in Britain. Two separate independent states of India and Pakistan were created on August 15, 1947
Provisions of the Indian Independence Act 1947
- Two separate dominions of India and Pakistan would be created. Pakistan was to comprise NWFP, Sind, Baluchistan, West Punjab and East Bengal. The Boundary Commission would demarcate the exact boundary between the nations.
- Bengal would be divided if it is desired by the people. The Provincial Assemblies of the Hindu majority districts and Muslim majority districts would decide through voting if they want the division of state or not.
- A plebiscite would be held in NWFP and Sylhet in East Bengal to decide if they want to join India or Pakistan. While the former joined Pakistan, the latter joined East Bengal or present Bangladesh.
- A Governor General would be appointed for each dominion till the Constitutions are framed for both countries.
- The legislative authority of the British Parliament would cease from 15 August 1947.
- Till the framing of the new Constitutions, both dominions would be governed in accordance with the Act of 1935.
- The right of the King to veto laws was given up, and this right was passed over to the Governor General.
- The princely states would become independent of the British rule, and they were free to join either India or Pakistan.
- Provisions were made to divide the Indian army and other assets and liabilities between the two dominions.
- The office of the Secretary of State for India was abolished, but provisions were made for safeguarding the interests of the officers appointed by the Secretary of State.
Two separate independent states of India and Pakistan were created on August 15, 1947. While Jawaharlal Nehru became the first prime Minister of India, Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the first Governor-General of free Pakistan. The independence of India impacted the freedom movements in other countries. However, victory celebrations in India were marred by bloodshed which occurred during the partition of the country. India immediately after the partition faced many problems like backwardness of Indian agriculture, low industrial development, etc. It was only after careful economic planning and the launching of several programs by the government to improve agriculture, increase industrial development, and create employment opportunities that the Indian economy began to improve. Today, we not only export several agricultural commodities but are one of the major industrialized.