The province of Bengal during the British rule comprised the present states of West Bengal, East Bengal (present-day Bangladesh), Bihar, Odisha, Chotanagpur area, and some other regions. It had a population of over 80 million people. In July 1905, Lord Curzon announced the division of Bengal into the following two provinces. In this article, You will learn 4 main reasons behind the partition of Bengal.
West Bengal included the provinces of Bengal incorporating present-day West Bengal, Bihar, and Odisha. Kolkata was declared the capital city. East Bengal included the provinces of Eastern Bengal and Assam which consisted of the eastern districts of Bengal and Assam.
What was most disturbing was that while West Bengal had Hindus in the majority, East Bengal had Muslims in the majority. It was an attempt by the British to divide Bengal into communal lines.
Reasons behind the Partition of Bengal
- The British advocated that Bengal was divided to efficiently administer the province. However, the British government had the following sinister plans behind the partition of the province:
- Bengal was an important centre of Indian nationalism. The British hoped that by dividing the province on communal lines, they would be able to stop the rising wave of nationalism.
- The partition also aimed at curbing the influence of Bengal by reducing Bengalis in minority in their own home state.
- Bengal was divided in line with the policy of divide and rule followed by the British. The people of Bengal and the Indian nationalists severely criticized the partition of Bengal. They opposed the partition on the grounds that it was a deliberate attempt by the British to divide the Bengalis on religious and territorial grounds. Curzon’s decision to partition Bengal evoked huge protests from people all over the country. Soon, the government met with a strong anti-partition movement.
Also, Read Surat Split of 1907 in Congress
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