Biology Notes Class 9

Biology Notes Class 9 | ICSE Quality Study Materials

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Introducing Biology

Human Biology is the study of man as a living organism and the relationship of man with other living organisms. The study of living things, namely plants, animals and human beings, is called Biology. Read more

Five Kingdom Classification

One of the earliest systems of classification, called the Two Kingdom Classification, was proposed by Carolus Linnaeus in 1758. Read more

Digestive System

Digestion is the process of breakdown down naturally occurring foodstuffs into a diffusible form. It is a process which makes the foods soluble and of such a chemical nature that they can be absorbed through living membranes. Read more

The Respiratory System

Respiration is the catabolic process of releasing energy from simple sugar, glucose, for carrying out various life processes. Read more

Respiration in Plants

Respiration is a catabolic process of releasing energy from a simple sugar—glucose—for carrying out various life processes. Read more

Cells: The Unit of Life

The cell is the basic structural and functional unit of all living organisms. It is the smallest part of the body of an organism, capable of independent existence and able to perform all the essential functions of life. Read more

Tissues: Plant Tissues and Animal Tissues

A tissue is a group of cells having a common origin, similar structure and function and held
together by a cementing substance. Example: Connective tissue. Read more

Pollination and Fertilization

Pollination is the process of transfer of pollen grains from the anther of a stamen to the stigma of a carpel of a flower. The transfer of pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower or another flower on the same plant is called self-pollination. Read more

Economic Importance of Bacteria and Fungi

Bacteria are the most primitive unicellular prokaryotic organisms which do not have a well-defined nucleus and are not enclosed within a nuclear membrane. Read more

The Flower

A flower is a specialized shoot in which the leaves are modified to form floral structures. A flower which has all four whorls, calyx, corolla, androecium and gynoecium, is called a complete flower. Examples: Hibiscus, rose, sunflower etc. Read more

Vegetative Propagation and Micropropagation

Vegetative propagation or vegetative reproduction is a form of asexual reproduction in which a relatively large, differentiated part of the plant’s body gets detached from the parent plant and develops into an independent plant. Read more

Movement and Locomotion

The body of living organisms is made up of an important framework of bones called the skeletal system or the skeleton. The skeleton consists of bones, cartilages, ligaments, tendons and fascia. Read more

Structure of Seeds and Germination

Before moving onto the ‘Structure of seeds’ you should learn about the seed. The seed is a mature and ripened ovule of a flower which is formed after fertilization. It stores food material for the nourishment of the embryo during germination. Read more

Waste Generation and Management

Waste is any substance which is discarded after its primary use, or it is worthless, defective and of no further use. Examples: Spoilt food, vegetable peels, leaves, wood, grass, paper, leather, cotton, cattle dung etc. In this article, you will find Safe Waste disposal methods. Read more

Diseases: Cause and Control

A condition of the body in which vital functions are disturbed physiologically or psychologically is called a disease. Health is the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being. Read more

Aids to Health

Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity. Immunity is the ability of an organism to resist the attack of antigens or pathogens. Read more

Health Organizations

Health is one of the primary concerns of all the governments of the world. Governments strive to take steps individually, at the national level and globally to safeguard the health interests of their citizens. Read more

Skin ~ Functions, Structure, Components

The skin is the largest organ of the body. The lowermost layer of the skin which contains adipose tissue, Insulates the skin, acts as a shock absorber and anchors the skin to the underlying bones and muscles. Read more


The science and practice of maintaining good health are known as hygiene. The main factors which contribute to personal hygiene and good health are. Read more

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