Constructive and Destructive Effects of Volcanoes

Forces and movements arising from the interior of the Earth and causing horizontal and vertical movements are known as endogenic forces. The two kinds of endogenic forces are diastrophic and sudden movements. Volcanoes are caused by sudden movements occurring in the Earth’s interior. Constructive and Destructive Effects of Volcanoes are

Constructive and Destructive Effects of Volcanoes


Constructive Effects of Volcanoes

  • Volcanic soils are very fertile.
  • Solidified lava is a source of precious diamonds and minerals.
  • Hot springs are now used for the generation of electricity.

Destructive Effects of Volcanoes

  • Loss of life and property: The eruption of volcanoes can result in huge loss of lives and property.
  • Harmful to the natural environment: Volcanic eruption releases dust and many gases in the atmosphere. The solidification of lava into lava sheets also destructs the natural vegetation of nearby areas.

Products of a Volcano

  • Lava is the magma (hot molten fluid) which comes out on to the surface of the Earth.
  • Pyroclasts are the solid fragments of rock pieces which come out on the surface of the Earth during a volcanic eruption. The finest rock particles are known as dust.
  • Lapilli are small stone-sized particles.
  • Gases erupted are hydrogen sulphide, sulphur dioxide, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. A volcanic eruption is generally accompanied by steam.

Other Features Formed as a Result of Volcanic Eruptions

Hot springs: Hot springs are formed when the water around the magma chamber gets heated because of the movement of magma in the Earth’s interiors. The heated water then turns into steam spurting out to the Earth’s surface in the form of hot springs.

Geyser: A geyser is a fountain of hot water and superheated steam which occurs when water comes into contact with hot volcanic rocks.


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Intrusive and Extrusive Volcanic Landforms

Two types of landforms are created by volcanic eruptions, Intrusive and Extrusive Landforms. Extrusive landforms are formed on the surface of the Earth, while intrusive landforms are formed in the Earth’s interior.