A volcano is a vent or an opening in the Earth’s crust from which hot magma erupts from the interior of the Earth. Volcanoes are caused by sudden movements occurring in the Earth’s interior. Distribution of Volcanoes in the World ————
Distribution of Volcanoes in the World
Most of the volcanoes occur near earthquake belts around the young fold mountains. The Circum Pacific Belt also known as the Ring of Fire contains more than 80% of the total active volcanoes. Regions included in this belt are the Andes Mountains in South Africa and the Rockies in North America.
There are a series of islands along the east coast of Asia where many volcanoes are located. Some islands are Kurile Islands, Japanese islands, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Indonesian islands. Many volcanoes are also found in New Zealand. Some famous volcanoes in this belt are Mt Fujiyama in Japan, Mt Mayon in the Philippines, and Mt Krakatoa in Indonesia. According to estimated figures, there are about 40 active volcanoes in the Andes, 35 in Japan, 100 in the Philippines, and 70 in Indonesia.
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Two types of landforms are created by volcanic eruptions, Intrusive and Extrusive Landforms. Extrusive landforms are formed on the surface of the Earth, while intrusive landforms are formed in the Earth’s interior.
Earth’s crust from which hot magma erupts from the interior of Earth. The structure and Product of a Volcano are discussed below.
Causes of Volcanic Eruption – Presence of heat and pressure in the Earth’s interior, Movement of tectonic plates, Magma chamber
Classification of volcanoes based on the frequency of eruptions and Classification of volcanoes based on shape are discussed below
Structure of the Earth – The Earth is made of several concentric layers. The outer layer of the Earth is known as the lithosphere. The interior of the Earth is divided into three layers—core, mantle, and crust.