Humayun ascended the throne in 1530. He was defeated by Sher Shah Suri, an Afghan chief, at Kannauj in 1540. He managed to escape and took shelter in Persia.
- Humayun was the son of Babur and ascended the throne in 1530. His succession was challenged by his brothers Kamran, Hindal, and Askari along with the Afghans.
- He fought two battles against Sher Shah at Chausa (1539) and at Kannauj/Bilgram (1540) and was completely defeated by him.
- He faced a formidable opponent in the Afghan, Sher Khan (Shah) who in the successive battles of Chausa and Kannauj defeated Humayun and forced him to flee India.
- Sher Shah Suri was an able administrator and built the Grand Trunk Road of India running from Peshawar to Bengal.
- Shah Suri died while inspecting gunpowder in one of his forts. His successors were weak.
- He escaped to Iran where he passed 12 years of his life in exile.
- Humayun saw the death of Sher Shah as an opportunity to regain the throne. Humayun had conquered Qandahar and re-established his control over Kabul with the help of the Safavid King of Persia. He could now use Kabul as his base for campaigns into India.
- After Sher Shah’s death, Humayun invaded India in 1555 and defeated his brothers the Afghans. He once again became the ruler of India.
- He died while climbing down the stairs of his library (at Din Panah) in 1556 and was buried in Delhi.
- His sister, Gulbadan Begum, wrote his biography Humayunama.
- He built Din Panah in Delhi as his second capital.
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