Humayun: (1530-40) & (1555-56)

Humayun ascended the throne in 1530. He was defeated by Sher Shah Suri, an Afghan chief, at Kannauj in 1540. He managed to escape and took shelter in Persia.


  • Humayun was the son of Babur and ascended the throne in 1530. His succession was challenged by his brothers Kamran, Hindal, and Askari along with the Afghans.
  • He fought two battles against Sher Shah at Chausa (1539) and at Kannauj/Bilgram (1540) and was completely defeated by him.
  • He faced a formidable opponent in the Afghan, Sher Khan (Shah) who in the successive battles of Chausa and Kannauj defeated Humayun and forced him to flee India.
  • Sher Shah Suri was an able administrator and built the Grand Trunk Road of India running from Peshawar to Bengal.
  • Shah Suri died while inspecting gunpowder in one of his forts. His successors were weak.
  • He escaped to Iran where he passed 12 years of his life in exile.
  • Humayun saw the death of Sher Shah as an opportunity to regain the throne. Humayun had conquered Qandahar and re-established his control over Kabul with the help of the Safavid King of Persia. He could now use Kabul as his base for campaigns into India.
  • After Sher Shah’s death, Humayun invaded India in 1555 and defeated his brothers the Afghans. He once again became the ruler of India.
  • He died while climbing down the stairs of his library (at Din Panah) in 1556 and was buried in Delhi.
  • His sister, Gulbadan Begum, wrote his biography Humayunama.
  • He built Din Panah in Delhi as his second capital.


Babur (1484-1530)

Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur descended from his father’s side in the Sth generation from Timur, and through his mother in the 15th generation from Chenghiz Khan. He was a ruler of Farghana who later captured Kabul. He was invited by Daulat Khan Lodi to oust Ibrahim Lodi from the throne of Delhi.

Jahangir (1605-27)

Akbar was succeeded by Jahangir. Although he had inherited many qualities of Akbar, his military achievements were not as great as those of Akbar.

Akbar – the Great

Akbar was one of the greatest Mughal rulers in India. He ascended the throne at the age of thirteen years. He was guided by his tutor, Bairam Khan.

Shah Jahan & his Achievements: (1628-58)

Shah Jahan ascended the throne in 1628 after his father’s death. He was best known for his Deccan and foreign policies. The first thing that he had to face was revolts in

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