Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur descended from his father’s side in the Sth generation from Timur, and through his mother in the 15th generation from Chenghiz Khan. He was a ruler of Farghana who later captured Kabul. He was invited by Daulat Khan Lodi to oust Ibrahim Lodi from the throne of Delhi.
Why did Babur Invade India?
- The Ottomans defeated the Safavids and the Uzbeks controlled Trans oxiana forcing Babur’s imperial impulses towards India.
- Meager income of Kabul
- Desire to emulate Timur
- Punjab was part of the Timurid province and hence was considered a legal partrimony of the Timurids Apprehension of Uzbek attacks.
- He was invited to attack India by Daulat Khan Lodi, Subedar of Punjab; Ibrahim Lodi’s uncle Alamkhan Lodi and Rana Sanga.
- He was successful in his 5th expedition. In the Battle of Panipat 20th April 1526, he finally defeated Ibrahim Lodhi. Babur was the first one to entitle himself as the ‘Padshah’.
Battle of Panipat (1526) – Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi
Battle of Khanwa(1527) – Babur defeated Rana Sanga
Battle of Chanderi(1528) – Babur defeated Medini Rai
He wrote “Tuzuk-i-Baburi” or Baburnama in Turkish. It was translated into Persian by Abdur Rahim Khani-Khanan. Other works include a “Masnavi”.
Significance of the Invasion
- After the Kushans, he was the first to bring Kabul and Kandahar into the Indian empire, which provided stability since it was the staging post of invasions of India. This helped in promoting trade since these towns were the starting points of caravans meant for China in the east & the Mediterranean in the west.
- He smashed Lodi and Rajput’s power, destroying the balance of power which paved the way for an empire. A new mode of warfare was introduced with a combination of artillery and cavalry. He restored the prestige of the crown after Feroze Shah Tughlaq.